In order to ensure the sustainable production and conservation of gaharu, especially those from the wild, several control measures have been introduced and imposed. The controls are imposed in the stages of production, distribution and export.
The harvest of any products from conservation and protected forest areas are basically not allowed except for eduction and research purposes and traditional uses. Whereas, the collection or harvest of timber and non-timber forest products in granted concession forest areas are regulated under separate permit to concession companies from the company has to pay a royalty and concession fee. Non timber forest product like gaharu may not be specifically described in the licence agreement. However, regardless the true sources, DGFPNC has determined annual quota of gaharu for each province.
Distribution and Transportation
Distribution and transportation of certain wildlife, part and or its derivative are regulated by DG of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation which is also as Indonesian CITES MA. The distribution and transhipment of those regulated by DGFPNC must be accompanied by a transport permit issued either by Central office of DGFPNC or Regional Office of DGFPNC. For domestic transport , the permit is called as Surat Ijin Angkut Tumbuhan Dalam Negeri (SAT – DN) and for overseas called Surat Ijin Angkut Tumbuhan Luar Negeri (SAT – LN). Without this document, the product is considered illegal. This document is granted after being inspected and verified by regional office of DG FPNC in from each original province.
To ease domestic control, gaharu is grouped based on their origincal sources, gaharu from westernparts (west zone) of Indonesia called as Malaccensis group (A malaccensis, A microcarpa, A beccariana and A hirta) and those sourced from easternparts called Filaria groups (A filaria, A cumingiana, G versteegii, G moluccna, G podocarpus, G decifiens, G salicifolia, G caudate and G ladermanii). Filaria groups are from Western Papua, Moluccas and Lesser Sunda. These two groups are not overlapping in their distribution.
International trade of gaharu is controlled through CITES. All species of Aquilaria and Gyrinops have been listed under Appendix II of CITES for which the export of the products listed under Appendiv II CITES (pure agarwood, mixed oil, logs, chips, block, branches and twigs, roots, seedling, sawdust and powder, carving and hadycraft, beads, prayer beads, neclaces and bacelets) must be accompanied by export permit from CITES MA and only registered traders (exporters) will be granted permit after complying all other requirements.